District Profile

Brief description of Agro climatic zones

Lucknow has a humid subtropical climate with cool, dry winters from mid-November to February and dry, hot summers from late March to June. The rainy season is from July to mid-September. In winter, the maximum temperature is around 25 °C (77 °F) and the minimum is in 3 °C (37 °F) to 7 °C (45 °F) range. Fog is quite common from mid-December to late January. Summers are extremely hot with temperatures ranging from 40 °C (104 °F) to 45 °C (113 °F).

Demographic features of the district

Geographical area 2528 sq Km
Population 51.47 lakh
Population density 1816 per sq Km
Literacy rate 77.29%
Sex ratio 909:1000
Development blocks 08
Talukas(Tehsil) 04
Panchayats 511
Total villages 807
Total cultivated area 215280 ha
Net cultivated area 138148 ha
Net irrigated area 124000 ha
Small & Marginal Farmers 92.9% of total population
Average Land holding of Small & Marginal Farmers 0.8 ha
Cropping intensity 158 %

Major farming systems / enterprises (based on the analysis made by the KVK)

S. N. Farming System / Enterprise
1 Agricultural crop: Irrigated - wheat, rice, mentha, field pea, mustard, sugarcane etc. Rainfed - urd, arhar, gram and groundnut etc.
2 Fruit crops: mango, banana, guava and papaya etc.
Vegetable crop: potato, brinjal, okra, vegetable pea, cabbage etc.
Floriculture: Gladiolus, marigold, rose etc.
3 Animal husbandry: Cow, buffaloes, goat and pigs etc.

Description of Agro-climatic Zone & major agro-ecological situations (based on soil and topography)

S. N. Agro-climatic Zone Characteristics
1 AES-I Sandy loam, loam and silty loam soil, irrigation through bore wells. Major crops are mango and other horticultural crops. Dairy is the major subsidiary occupation.
2 AES- II Silty loam and silty clay soil are existing in this AES and mainly irrigated through bore wells and canal. Main crops are rice and mentha.
3 AES-III Loamy sand and loamy soils are dominating, irrigation facilities are poor and mainly rainfed area and some areas are covered through bore wells.
4 AES-IIV Soils are silty clay loam, silty loam and loamy types. Irrigation mainly through bore wells. Crops grown are rice, wheat, pulses, oilseeds, vegetable, fruits and flowers etc.

Soil Types

S. N. Soil Type Characteristics Area in ha
1 Loamy soil Medium textured, good aeration, poor water holding capacity, low in organic matter, non-sticky etc. 17304
2 Sandy loam Coarse textured, poor water holding capacity, low in organic matter, good aeration, poor nutrients retaining capacity etc. 22970
3 Silty loam Medium textured, good aeration, low in organic matter, good aeration, holds plant nutrients well etc. 99301
4 Silt loam Medium textured, less aeration, good aeration, low in organic matter, good aeration, holds plant nutrients well etc. 28352
5 Silty clay loam Medium textured, high moisture and nutrients retaining capacity, soil particles sticky when wet, dries out slowly and become cloddy, moderate aeration etc. 18357
6 Clay loam Fine textured, moderate aeration, high moisture and nutrients retaining capacity, soil particles sticky when wet, dries out slowly and become cloddy, moderate aeration etc. 8725
7 Silty clay Medium textured, moderate aeration, high moisture and nutrients retaining capacity, soil particles sticky when wet, dries out slowly and become cloddy, moderate aeration etc. 4526
Total 199715

Area, Production and Productivity of major crops cultivated in the district

S. N. Crop Area (ha) Production (q) Productivity (q /ha)
Major Kharif Crops
1 Rice 48103 1435200 29.84
2 Maize 2826 27790 10.99
3 Pearl millet 1501 13790 14.69
4 Sorghum 4544 14240 9.81
5 Coarse Grain 54 330 6.11
6 Black gram 9342 30800 3.92
7 Green gram 64 290 4.54
8 Pigeon pea 1967 28940 10.57
9 Groundnut 142 1150 8.10
10 Sesamum 986 2110 2.14
Major Rabi Crops
1 Wheat 81768 1944370 23.77
2 Barley 340 5340 15.71
3 Gram 1831 2090 11.42
4 Pea 3173 3712 11.70
5 Lentil 851 32300 3.80
6 Mustard 2806 35420 12.62
7 Linseed 11 40 3.63
8 Rapeseed 3500 32200 9.20
Major Rabi Crops
1 Mango 18400 184000 10
2 Guava 550 11000 20
3 Banana and Papaya 120 2800 30
4 Jack Fruit 69 980 25
5 Okra 1500 24000 16
6 Bottle gourd 1500 15000 10
7 Pumpkin 900 30000 30
8 Bitter gourd 1500 22500 15
9 Onion 3000 61750 20
10 Cauliflower / Cabbage 825 24750 30
11 Chilly 200 500 25

Population of livestock in the district

Category Population
Crossbred Cow 41682
Indigenous Cow 238458
Total Cow 280140
Buffalo 274625
Goats 182769
Sheep 1878
Pigs 25697
Rabbits 1416
Hens 25745
Desi 18162
Improved 870
Ducks 12
Others 2190

Constraints of farmers in Lucknow district

(A) Socio-economic constraints

  1. Increasing urbanization due to expansion of Lucknow city creating shortage of cultivable land
  2. Lack of storage facilities (cold chain)
  3. Unavailability of farm credit in time from financial institutions
  4. High population density (high pressures on the land and resources
  5. Land fragmentation
  6. Poor / little education
  7. High labour migration (permanent/seasonal)
  8. Inadequate family labour
  9. Increasing unemployment among rural youths
  10. Poor healthcare
  11. Farmers are vulnerable to expensive agricultural inputs
  12. Costly fuels / diesel
  13. Low price for the products
  14. High marketing costs
  15. Lack of discriminatory pricing system based on quality and grades produce
  16. Lack of coordination among producers to increase their bargaining power
  17. Lack of marketing centers/ institutions
  18. Exploitation by middlemen
  19. Lack of transparency in marketing system
  20. High processing costs and poor product handling
  21. Crops damage by blue bulls
  22. Increasing unemployment of rural youths

(B) Production Constraints

  1. Problem of sodic soils
  2. Declining fertility of soils
  3. Crops damage by various pests and diseases from sowing/planting to harvesting
  4. Poor productivity and high cost of production
  5. Lack of technical knowledge in production, processing, and quality control
  6. Inadequate information particularly about post harvest management of agricultural produce
  7. Decreasing farm-size
  8. Lack of new varieties/ HVY seeds
  9. Lack of/ poor electricity supply
  10. Water-scarcity/ Inadequate water supply
  11. Inadequate and/ or imbalanced manuring
  12. High post-harvest losses
  13. Lack of processing techniques
  14. Low quality seed
  15. Poor adaptation of varieties
  16. Infrastructural bottlenecks
  17. Traditional methods of farming
  18. Monotonous cropping systems
  19. Perishability of horticultural produce
  20. Infertile land /poor soil quality

(C) Environment Constraints

  1. Fallen under ground water/ depth of water table
  2. Seasonality/ weather dependency
  3. Insufficient rainfall/drought/delayed rainfall due to climate change effects
  4. Lack of timely availability of water through canals
  5. Difficult to get water through tube-wells during summers
  6. Mining of productive soils

(D) Technical Constraints

  1. Timely unavailability of fertilizers / pesticides
  2. Insufficient /shortage of seed material
  3. Timely unavailability of seeds
  4. Poor product packaging
  5. Lack of market information and marketing infrastructures
  6. Lack of markets to absorb the production
  7. High post-harvest losses

Major identified farmers’ problems of Lucknow district

Crops Identified Problem
Wheat Unavilability of improved seed materials in time.
Shrinking of grains due to flactuation in temperature.
Late sown rice reduced the productivity of wheat crop.
Rice Unavilability of improved seed materials in time.
Reduction in yield due to climate change.
Reduction in yield due to pests problem.
Pulses Unavilability of improved seed of newly released varieties.
Deficency of micronutrients in soils
Crops damage due to blue bulls.
Oil Seed Unavilability of improved seed materials in time.
Heavy Infestation of aphids
Potato Unavilability of improved seed materials in time.
Scarcity of healty & diseased free free planting material.
Problem of nutrients and pests management.
Mango Poor management of orchards.
Irregular bearring of fruits.
Reducing productivity of old orchards
Live Stocks Reduction in population of high yielding milch animals.
Scarcity of green fodder round the year.
Poor management of dairy cattles.
Women & Childcare Anemia in women and chieldren.
Malnutration among children.
Lack of knowledge about value addition of horticultural crops.

District Lucknow at a Glance

Geographical Area : 2528 sq km

Population : Male : 1932.32 thousand
Female : 1715.52 thousand

Literacy Rate : Male: 76%
Female : 60.5%

No. of Tahsil : 4

No. of Blocks : 8

Total Gram Panchayat : 511

Total Nyay Panchayat : 97

Cultivated Area : 138148 ha.

Usar Land : 24725 ha

Total Irrigated Area : 124 thousand ha. (90 % of total sowing area)

Normal Rain Fall : 953 mm

Temperature : Maximum : 44.4 centigrade
Minimum : 3.6 centigrade

Agricultural Labours : 6.5% total population

Farmers : 21% Total Population

Total Land Holdings : 215280

Small & Marginal Land Holding : 92.9 % of total land holdings (in no.)
70.9 % of total land holdings (in area)

Average Land Holding : 0.8 ha

Cropping Intensity : 158

Consumption of Fertilizers : 135.7 kg/ha